To install this package, run in Emacs:
M-x package-install RET vertico RET
#+title: vertico.el - VERTical Interactive COmpletion #+author: Daniel Mendler #+language: en #+export_file_name: vertico.texi #+texinfo_dir_category: Emacs #+texinfo_dir_title: Vertico: (vertico). #+texinfo_dir_desc: VERTical Interactive COmpletion. #+html: <img src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/75/Vertigomovie_restoration.jpg/800px-Vertigomovie_restoration.jpg" align="right" width="30%"> * Introduction Vertico provides a minimalistic vertical completion UI, which is based on the default completion system. By reusing the default system, Vertico achieves full compatibility with built-in Emacs commands and completion tables. Vertico is pretty bare-bone and comes with only a minimal set of commands. The code base is small (~500 lines of code without whitespace and comments). Additional enhancements can be installed separately via complementary packages. * Features - Vertical display with arrow key navigation - Shows the index of the current candidate and the total number of candidates - The current candidate is inserted with =TAB= and selected with =RET= - Non-existing candidates are entered by moving the point to the prompt line - Candidates sorting by history, string length and alphabetically - Long candidates with newlines are formatted to take up less space - Deferred completion style highlighting for performance - Support for ~annotation-function~, ~affixation-function~ and ~x-title-function~ [[https://github.com/minad/vertico/blob/main/screenshot.svg?raw=true]] * Configuration Vertico is available from [[http://elpa.gnu.org/packages/vertico.html][GNU ELPA]], such that it can be installed directly via ~package-install~. After installation, the global minor mode can be enabled with =M-x vertico-mode=. In order to configure Vertico and other packages in your init.el, you may want to use ~use-package~. I recommend to give orderless completion a try, which is different from the familiar prefix TAB completion. Here is an example configuration: #+begin_src emacs-lisp ;; Enable vertico (use-package vertico :init (vertico-mode)) ;; Use the `orderless' completion style. ;; Enable `partial-completion' for files to allow path expansion. ;; You may prefer to use `initials' instead of `partial-completion'. (use-package orderless :init (setq completion-styles '(orderless) completion-category-defaults nil completion-category-overrides '((file (styles . (partial-completion)))))) ;; Persist history over Emacs restarts. Vertico sorts by history. (use-package savehist :init (savehist-mode)) ;; A few more useful configurations... (use-package emacs :init ;; Add prompt indicator to `completing-read-multiple'. (defun crm-indicator (args) (cons (concat "[CRM] " (car args)) (cdr args))) (advice-add #'completing-read-multiple :filter-args #'crm-indicator) ;; Grow and shrink minibuffer ;;(setq resize-mini-windows t) ;; Do not allow the cursor in the minibuffer prompt (setq minibuffer-prompt-properties '(read-only t cursor-intangible t face minibuffer-prompt)) (add-hook 'minibuffer-setup-hook #'cursor-intangible-mode) ;; Enable recursive minibuffers (setq enable-recursive-minibuffers t)) #+end_src * Key bindings Vertico defines its own local keymap in the minibuffer which is derived from ~minibuffer-local-map~. The keymap mostly keeps the ~fundamental-mode~ keybindings intact and remaps and binds only a few commands. Note in particular the binding of =TAB= to ~vertico-insert~ and the bindings of ~vertico-exit/exit-input~. - ~beginning-of-buffer~, ~minibuffer-beginning-of-buffer~ -> ~vertico-first~ - ~end-of-buffer~ -> ~vertico-last~ - ~scroll-down-command~ -> ~vertico-scroll-down~ - ~scroll-up-command~ -> ~vertico-scroll-up~ - ~next-line~, ~next-line-or-history-element~ -> ~vertico-next~ - ~previous-line~, ~previous-line-or-history-element~ -> ~vertico-previous~ - ~exit-minibuffer~ -> ~vertico-exit~ - ~kill-ring-save~ -> ~vertico-save~ - =<C-return>= -> ~vertico-exit-input~ - =TAB= -> ~vertico-insert~ * TAB completion The bindings of the ~minibuffer-local-completion-map~ are not available in Vertico by default. This means that TAB works differently from what you may expect from the default Emacs completion system. If you prefer to have the default completion commands a key press away you can add new bindings or even replace the Vertico bindings. Then the default completion commands will work as usual. For example you can use =M-TAB= to cycle between candidates if you have set ~completion-cycle-threshold~. #+begin_src emacs-lisp (define-key vertico-map "?" #'minibuffer-completion-help) (define-key vertico-map (kbd "M-RET") #'minibuffer-force-complete-and-exit) (define-key vertico-map (kbd "M-TAB") #'minibuffer-complete) #+end_src The ~orderless~ completion style does not support TAB prefix completion. In order to enable that you may want to combine ~orderless~ with ~substring~, or not use ~orderless~ at all. #+begin_src emacs-lisp (setq completion-styles '(substring orderless)) (setq completion-styles '(basic substring partial-completion flex)) #+end_src If Vertico is active, it makes sense to disable the automatic =*Completions*= buffer by setting ~completion-auto-help~ to ~nil~. TAB-completion can be made less noisy by setting ~completion-show-inline-help~ to ~nil~. #+begin_src emacs-lisp (advice-add #'vertico--setup :after (lambda (&rest _) (setq-local completion-auto-help nil completion-show-inline-help nil))) #+end_src * Complementary packages Vertico works well together with a few complementary packages, which enrich the completion UI. These packages are fully supported: - [[https://github.com/minad/marginalia][Marginalia]]: Rich annotations in the minibuffer - [[https://github.com/minad/consult][Consult]]: Many useful search and navigation commands - [[https://github.com/oantolin/embark][Embark]]: Minibuffer actions and context menu - [[https://github.com/oantolin/orderless][Orderless]]: Advanced completion style You may also want to look into my [[https://github.com/minad/corfu][Corfu]] package, which provides a minimal completion system for completion-in-region using overlays. Corfu is developed in the same spirit as Vertico. * Alternatives There are many alternative completion UIs, each UI with its own advantages and disadvantages. The [[https://github.com/raxod502/selectrum][Selectrum readme]] gives an extensive comparison of many available completion systems from the perspective of Selectrum. Vertico aims to be fully compliant with all Emacs commands and achieves that with a minimal code base, relying purely on ~completing-read~ while avoiding to invent its own APIs. Inventing a custom API as Helm or Ivy is explicitly avoided in order to increase flexibility and package reuse. Since Vertico only provides the UI, you may want to combine it with some of the complementary packages, to give a full-featured completion experience similar to Ivy. Vertico is targeted at users interested in crafting their Emacs precisely to their liking - completion plays an integral part in how the users interacts with Emacs. There are at least two other interactive completion UIs, which follow a similar philosophy: - [[https://github.com/raxod502/selectrum][Selectrum]]: If you are looking for a less minimalistic and more full-featured (but also more complex) package, you may be interested in Selectrum, which has a similar UI as Vertico. Additionally Selectrum optimizes Tramp file directory browsing with caching, supports Avy-style quick keys, a horizontal display and a configurable buffer display. - [[https://github.com/oantolin/icomplete-vertical][Icomplete-vertical]]: This package enhances the Emacs builtin Icomplete with a vertical display. In contrast to Vertico, the candidates are rotated such that the current candidate always appears at the top. From my perspective, candidate rotation feels a bit less intuitive than the UI of Vertico or Selectrum. * Caveats Vertico is robust and works well for most use cases, except when navigating remote directories via Tramp (See [[https://github.com/minad/vertico/issues/20][issue 20]]). My opinion is that the Tramp performance problems should be resolved on a lower layer within the file completion table. In case you are a heavy Tramp user, I recommend to give Selectrum a try. Furthermore there are a few problematic completion commands described in the next section. ** Problematic completion commands A few completion commands make certain assumptions about the completion styles and the completion UI. Some of the assumptions may not hold in Vertico and as such require minor workarounds. *** ~org-set-tags-command~ ~org-set-tags-command~ implements a completion table which relies on the ~basic~ completion style and TAB completion. This table does not work well with Vertico and Icomplete. The issue can be mitigated by deactivating most of the Vertico UI and relying purely on TAB completion. The UI is still enhanced by Vertico, since Vertico shows the available tags. #+begin_src emacs-lisp (defun disable-selection () (when (eq minibuffer-completion-table #'org-tags-completion-function) (setq-local vertico-map minibuffer-local-completion-map completion-cycle-threshold nil completion-styles '(basic)))) (advice-add #'vertico--setup :before #'disable-selection) #+end_src In order to fix the issues properly, ~org-set-tags-command~ should be implemented using ~completing-read-multiple~ as discussed on the [[https://lists.gnu.org/archive/html/emacs-orgmode/2020-07/msg00222.html][mailing list]]. *** ~Info-goto-node~ The command ~Info-goto-node~ uses the ~Info-read-node-name~ completion table, which almost works as is with Vertico. However there is the issue that the completion table sometimes throws unexpected errors (bug#47771). *** ~tmm-menubar~ The text menu bar works well with Vertico but always shows a =*Completions*= buffer, which is unwanted if you are using the Vertico UI. This completion buffer can be disabled as follows. #+begin_src emacs-lisp (advice-add #'tmm-add-prompt :after #'minibuffer-hide-completions) #+end_src * Contributions Since this package is part of GNU ELPA, contributions require copyright assignment to the FSF.